Diet analysis according to Duke (2014) refers to the process of determining the nutritional content of the food one ingests. Performing my diet analysis, therefore, gives me an opportunity to determine the pattern, quantity and the quality of food I consume daily. It also provides the information concerning the breakdown of my caloric intake, macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micro-nutrients and (vitamins and minerals) (Duke, 2014). I had a feeling that my diet intake will significantly be lower than the recommended because I am trying to lose weight and on a strict diet to shed some calories. I performed diet analysis for two reasons; the first is the fulfillment of my course requirement and to know the actual composition of my diet.
Optimal body functions are driven by energy which comes from carbohydrates I ingest daily. Carbohydrate is the main source of energy in the body. The Canadian acceptable Macro-nutrients Distribution Range recommends that 45% to 65% of calories should come from proteins. This translates to 225 to 325 grams daily intake for a 2000-calorie diet. Therefore, the lowest daily carbohydrate intake should limit to 50 to 150 grams (Duke, 2014). Carbohydrate is essential for the energy production in the body to meet the activities of the daily living.
Proteins, on the other hand, are essential nutrients in the body for growth and multiplication of cells. They are required for optimal body regeneration after an illness or destruction during an injury. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommends 10 to 35 percent of calorie from proteins in the 2000-calorie diet for adults of 19 years and older (Becker, Cummins, Gbadamosi, & Wilson, 2014). It represents 50 to 175 grams of proteins given that they produce four calories per grams. Proteins are required for transport purposes in the body like hemoglobin, hormonal functions, and enzymatic activities.
Fats equally should be included in the daily dietary intake since they serve as cushion to vital organs of the body like heart and the brain. The daily recommended intake of fats should be 20 to 35 percent of the total caloric intake; fats produce nine calories per gram (Becker, Cummins, Gbadamosi, & Wilson, 2014). Its consumption should be within the recommended intake to avoid the risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with excess fat intake.
My daily carbohydrate intake is 53% which corresponds to 593 kcal in a 2000-calorie diet. It is within the AMDR recommendation of 45 to 65 percent of the total calorie intake should come from carbohydrates. My carbohydrate intake, therefore, is adequate to provide the energy required by the body to meet the demand. The percentage of protein in my diet is 16% of the total caloric intake (178kcal). Canadian Acceptable Macro-nutrient Distribution Range requires that the daily intake of proteins should 10 to 35 percent of total caloric intake. It translates to 0.8g of protein per kg body weight. Therefore, my diet has barely sufficient protein to meet the needs of the body.
Canadian AMDR requires every individual to consume 20 to 35 percent total calorie intake per day. Less than 10 percent of these fats should come from saturated fats, and less than 1 percent should be from trans-fats (Trumbo, Schlicker, Yates, & Poos, 2012). My daily fat intake amounts to 32% of the total caloric intake. It means that my diet meets the recommended daily intake to cater for the body’s demand.
There is need to adjust the dietary intake of my macronutrients in the case where the consumption goes below or above the higher range of AMRD. If the macronutrients (CHO, PRO, and fats) go beyond the more upper range required, then decreasing daily consumption of the respective macronutrient can help to reduce the amount available in the body. I should also do a lot of physical exercise to increase the rate of breakdown of excess macronutrients. If the range falls below the recommended daily intake, I should increase the daily intake of the respective macronutrient. I will also take fortified foods to increase their availability of them in the body. I will ensure that all these macronutrients are distributed throughout the day to avoid overload or deficient at certain times of the day (Becker, Cummins, Gbadamosi, & Wilson, 2014).
I have also noticed that my daily intake of calcium and vitamin D are below the AMDR recommendation. Besides, magnesium and vitamin B9 are in excess in my diet; they are above the upper recommended range by AMDR. My daily calcium consumption is 750 mg which is below the required intake of 1000 mg of calcium. Calcium is essential for bone and teeth formation, nerve transmission, muscle contraction and relaxation, blood clotting pathway and blood pressure regulation (Trumbo, Schlicker, Yates, & Poos, 2012). Deficiency of calcium predisposes me to the development of osteoporosis and impaired regeneration of bones as well as healthy teeth development. Therefore I am obliged to take calcium enriched foods like increasing consumption of dairy products such as yogurt, cheese and milk (Duke, 2014). I should also consume calcium supplements when the availability of the above foods is limited.
I have realized that I ingest high amount of magnesium on my diet. My daily magnesium intake is 400mg. The Canadian AMDR requires that not more than 350 mg of magnesium should be consumed daily. Excess magnesium in the body has detrimental effects including irregular heart rate, low blood pressure, depressed breathing and decreased level of consciousness (Nelms, &Sucher, 2015). To avoid the risk involved with excess magnesium, I should limit the amount of magnesium intake by decreasing the consumption of magnesium enriched food such as pumpkin seeds, chard, and spinach which contain high quantity of magnesium (Nelms, &Sucher, 2015).
The following table is my documented 3-day energy balance outlining my energy requirement for daily activities (kcal burned) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in comparison to the kcal consumed.
|Day||Daily activities kcal burned||BMR||Kcal consumed|
BMR(basal metabolic rate) is the amount of energy needed by the body while resting in a temperate environment when digestive system is inactive to keep the body functions like breathing and heartbeat (Duke, 2014). It is an estimate of the amount of calories the body would burn if I were to do nothing but rest for 24 hours.
My net kcal is obtained using the formula below
Net kcal= kcal consumed + kcal burned – BMR
3347 +636 -4750= -2039kcal.
I should lower my daily physical activity since having a negative net kcal is an indication that the body is in need of energy according to my fitness pal. The body is failing to meet the demand of the energy required. However, increasing the consumption of energy giving food is paramount.
I have found out that my daily dietary intake has adequate macro-nutrients (CHO, PRO, and fats) to meet the body function. However, increasing carbohydrates barely meets the slight increase in the energy demands of the body. Therefore, I should work towards improving the amount of carbohydrate consumed daily. Also, I must work towards getting optimum intake of micronutrients like magnesium and calcium. My energy kcal consumed is less than the BMR.
My diet analysis has confirmed my hypothesis that my diet is significantly lower than the required. My diet does not meet the energy demands of the body evidenced by negative net kcal. Therefore there is need to reevaluate and amend the energy demand disparity. My physical activity of more than 150 minutes per week is sufficient.
Duke, S, G, (2014). Nutrition essentials for nursing practice (7thed). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nelms, M., &Sucher, K. (2015).Nutrition therapy and pathophysiology.Nelson Education.
Web page; https://community.myfitnesspal.com
Trumbo, P., Schlicker, S., Yates, A. A.,$ Poos. M. (2012).dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrates, fiber, fats, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids, Journal of the American Diatetic Association, 102(11), 1648-1670.
Becker, S., Cummins, P., Gbadamosi, A., & Wilson, S. (2014). American Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the daily dietary recommended intake. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics, 27(3).207-218